144036 Starling Sturnus vulgaris L 20-22cm. Familiar urban and rural bird with swaggering walk. Forms large flocks outside breeding season. Sexes are separable in summer. Adult male in summer has dark plumage with iridescence seen in good light. Legs are reddish and bill is yellow with blue base to lower mandible. Adult female in summer is similar but has some pale spots on underparts and pale yellow base to lower mandible. Winter adult (both sexes) has numerous white spots adorning dark plumage and dark bill. Juvenile is grey-brown, palest on throat; bill is dark; spotted body plumage acquired in winter. Voice Varied repertoire of clicks and whistles including mimicry. Status Widespread and common but declining. Found in all kinds of open habitats in winter. Often nests in house roofs.